Náboženský pluralismus pro pluralitní věk

Volba papeže Benedikta XVI. a globální válka proti teroru přitáhly nebývalou pozornost k úloze náboženství ve světě. Objevil se obzvláštní zájem (nejzřetelněji s ohledem na islám) zjistit, zda jsou jednotlivé náboženské tradice slučitelné s institucemi a hodnotami liberální demokracie. Avšak upíráním pozornosti na to, co tvoří víru a náboženskou praxi, přehlížíme zřejmě mnohem důležitější otázku: jak se ve víře a jejím naplňování odrážejí náboženské zásady.

Navzdory vydatným důkazům o opaku se mnozí lidé – zejména teologové – obávají, že žijeme v sekulární době. Náš věk, pro nějž sekularismus není ani zdaleka nejcharakterističtější, však zažil obrovské výbuchy náboženských vášní. Moderní doba je stejně náboženská jako všechna předchozí historická období, ba v některých místech ještě náboženštější.

Jedna výjimka je geografická: západní a střední Evropa skutečně prošly výrazným úpadkem náboženské víry, což se stalo důležitou součástí evropské kulturní identity. Další výjimka je sociologická a týká se relativně nepočetné, ale vlivné mezinárodní inteligence, pro niž se sekularizace stala nejen faktem, nýbrž – alespoň pro některé její představitele – ideologickým závazkem.

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