重新唤醒富国扶贫热情

华盛顿——全球最贫困国家正在遭受五年内第三次并非由它们所引起的危机的侵袭——因最发达国家所带来的金融风暴导致的衰退。低收入国家刚刚经历了2007—2008年的食品和燃料冲击,随后又遭遇了金融危机,而在2012年,它们可能会面临更大的风险。此外,在当今的全球化世界中,各国之间相互依赖,穷国受困将不可避免地给所有国家带来不良后果,不管是穷是富。

2009年全球危机处于顶峰时,许多低收入国家经历了因出口下降、侨民寄回外汇减少以及外国投资出逃所造成的增长减速。这造成了严重的社会后果:世界银行估计,到2010年底,世界极端贫困人口数量增加了6400万。

但情况原本可能更加糟糕。得益于过去十年政策表现的改善,低收入国家在面临此次危机时所处的状况要比前几次好得多。它们的财政和经常项目赤字更小了,通胀更低了,国际储备更高了,且债务负担也更低了(部分要归功于债务减免)。

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