Reinventar o Banco Mundial, outra vez

MADRID - Actualmente, com três candidatos na corrida ao lugar do próximo presidente do Banco Mundial - a ministra das Finanças nigeriana, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, o ex-ministro das Finanças colombiano, José Antonio Ocampo, e o candidato dos Estados Unidos, Jim Yong Kim, presidente da instituição de ensino Dartmouth College - é chegado o momento para dar um passo atrás e avaliar a trajectória do Banco. A menos que o/a próximo/a presidente do Banco tenha uma visão clara do caminho a seguir e a seriedade para resistir às pressões internas da instituição, ele ou ela será engolido/a pela sua complexa maquinaria e pelos seus processos pesados.

A atenção mundial tem-se centrado em analisar os pontos fortes e as qualificações dos três candidatos, particularmente as suas credenciais económicas e financeiras. Mas o verdadeiro desafio está em dar ao Banco Mundial, o rumo que reflecte o mundo, tal como ele é, e recalibre as suas ferramentas em conformidade. Inevitavelmente, a nova rota depende, em parte, em reconhecer que a economia e as finanças, enquanto elementos integrantes de todas as áreas de actividades do Banco, já não são os principais condutores da instituição.

Os instrumentos tradicionais do Banco Mundial foram (e ainda são) os empréstimos com juros baixos, os créditos sem juros e as concessões. Mas a filosofia central do Banco apoiou-se nos empréstimos, com juros, aos países de rendimento médio e canalizou os fundos subsequentes para os países mais pobres, elegíveis para apoio. Hoje, devido à condicionalidade dos seus empréstimos, o Banco está a perder competitividade face à pletora de intervenientes, públicos e privados, que exercem pressão no cenário do desenvolvimento. Enquanto isso, o Banco está a emergir como uma fonte vital - de facto, indispensável - de conhecimentos especializados e de assistência técnica, bem como um fornecedor de bens públicos mundiais.

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