Reinventing the Maghreb
At a time when the European Union and the United States are anxious to promote political and economic reform in the Arab world, they should not overlook the Maghreb. The EU cannot ignore the political, social, and security challenges that confront this huge swathe of northern Africa, and the US cannot afford to neglect this region in its global fight against terrorism. New and bold – yet pragmatic – initiatives are therefore needed that combine the efforts of local actors and external actors.
The overall situation in the region is far from satisfactory. Algeria’s economy is massively dependent on oil and gas exports, Morocco’s is largely based on agricultural production (on which the weather has a huge impact) and remittances from expatriates, while Tunisia depends on European consumer demand and tourism.
Education and labor policies in all Maghreb countries are under constant pressure from increasingly youthful populations. In addition, the controversy over who should rule Western Sahara remains an obstacle to full normalisation of Algerian-Moroccan relations.