Réinventer le FMI !

L'économie mondiale connaît depuis quelques temps une période de forte croissance, sans crise financière qui risque de faire contagion. On aurait pu penser que cela allait continuer ainsi, si la confiance dans les performances de l'économie n'avait été ébranlée récemment par la hausse du prix du pétrole, les catastrophes naturelles comme le cyclone Katrina et les déséquilibres mondiaux de plus en plus marqués, à savoir les excédents considérables de certains pays et les déficits tout aussi considérables de bien d'autres.

La manière dont ces problèmes affectent d'une part chaque pays individuellement et d'autre part l'économie mondiale traduit la réalité de la mondialisation. Pour évaluer les énormes bénéfices potentiels et les risques tout aussi énormes d'une économie mondiale de plus en plus intégrée, les gouvernements ont besoin de nouveaux outils et d'une meilleure compréhension des forces à l'œuvre. Le défi est encore plus considérable pour les pays en voie de développement : ils doivent rejoindre à l'économie mondiale pour diminuer le fossé qui les sépare du reste du monde et améliorer le niveau de vie de leurs citoyens les plus pauvres.

Le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) a été créé après la Seconde Guerre mondiale pour éviter de répéter les erreurs de politique économique qui ont été en partie la cause de cette conflagration. Depuis 60 ans, tandis que l'économie mondiale se transformait, la responsabilité du FMI s'est accrue. Quand j'ai rejoins le Fonds il y a un peu plus d'un an, les demandes des pays membres à l'égard de cette institution allaient croissants. J'ai donc lancé une étude sur le rôle du FMI au sein de l'économie mondiale et sur la manière dont il doit évoluer.

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