Xi Jinping belt and road Mark Schiefelbein/Pool/Getty Images

A vueltas con el orden global

MADRID – En los últimos tiempos, son muchos los analistas que argumentan que la Pax Americana tiene los días contados. La preeminencia de Estados Unidos en el panorama internacional—vinculada a la ausencia de conflictos “calientes” entre grandes potencias—se erosiona a un ritmo cada vez mayor. Tanto otros estados como diversos actores no estatales están ganando protagonismo, mientras los Estados Unidos se alejan de su imagen de “nación indispensable”. Durante los primeros 150 días de la presidencia de Donald Trump, su lema de America First se ha manifestado más bien como America Alone, lo cual siembra todavía más dudas acerca del futuro de lo que suele llamarse “orden liberal internacional”.

El internacionalismo liberal se caracteriza por promover un ideal de apertura, tratando asimismo de dotar a las relaciones internacionales de un marco normativo e institucional de tipo multilateral. Al concluir la Segunda Guerra Mundial, estos principios proveyeron el sustrato ideológico de tratados como el GATT (Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio), que más tarde conduciría al establecimiento de la Organización Mundial del Comercio.

La Guerra Fría puso grandes trabas a las pretensiones globalizadoras del internacionalismo liberal, una ideología estrechamente asociada al bloque Occidental y, más concretamente, a los países anglosajones. La caída del muro de Berlín dio paso al período de hegemonía incontestable de Estados Unidos y facilitó que se extendieran las estructuras de gobernanza que este país promulgaba, pero esto no se produjo ni con la velocidad ni en la proporción que se esperaba.

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