Stop TTIP protest mehr demokratie/Flickr

Acuerdos comerciales, argumentos confusos

PRINCETON – Tras años de parálisis en las negociaciones mundiales de comercio, los tratados regionales (un camino largo tiempo latente al libre comercio) han vuelto por sus fueros. Dos megaacuerdos de los que Estados Unidos es protagonista pueden definir el rumbo futuro del comercio mundial.

El más avanzado, el Acuerdo Transpacífico (ATP), incluye a once países (además de Estados Unidos) que en conjunto suponen el 40% de la producción mundial, pero significativamente, excluye a China. La Asociación Transatlántica de Comercio e Inversión (ATCI) con la Unión Europea va más lejos, ya que promete unir dos megarregiones que juntas equivalen a la mitad del comercio internacional.

Hace mucho que los tratados de libre comercio dejaron de ser tema exclusivo de expertos y tecnócratas, así que no sorprende que ambas iniciativas hayan generado un acalorado debate público. Las posturas de partidarios y opositores están tan polarizadas que es fácil perder de vista las posibles consecuencias. Para entender lo que está en juego, hay que comprender que los motivos detrás de estos acuerdos son variados; algunos de ellos benignos, otros, desde un punto de vista global, no tanto.

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