Stop TTIP protest mehr demokratie/Flickr

Une défense peu convaincante des accords commerciaux

PRINCETON – Étant donné que les négociations commerciales mondiales sont dans l’impasse depuis des années, les accords régionaux – longtemps un instrument peu utilisé de la libéralisation du commerce – font un retour en force. Les États-Unis sont au centre de deux méga traités qui pourraient façonner la direction que prendra le commerce mondial.

L’Accord de Partenariat transpacifique (TPP) est le plus avancé et implique 11 pays, en sus des États-Unis, qui représentent ensemble jusqu’à 40 pour cent de la production mondiale ; mais la Chine, il faut le souligner, n’en fait pas partie. Le Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d’investissement (TTIP), négocié entre les États-Unis et l’Union européenne a un objectif encoure plus ambitieux – réunir deux régions du monde qui représentent ensemble la moitié du commerce mondial.

Depuis un certain temps, les accords commerciaux ne sont plus la chasse gardée des experts et des technocrates. Il n’est donc pas surprenant que ces deux projets d’accords aient donné lieu à de vifs et profonds débats publics. Les points de vues des partisans et des opposants sont tellement polarisés qu’il est difficile de ne pas être totalement confus quant aux conséquences potentielles de ces accords. Pour apprécier les enjeux, il faut comprendre qu’un mélange d’objectifs – certains bénins, d’autres moins, d’un point de vue global – est à l’origine de ces accords.

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