Cero armas nucleares, cero prejuicios

MADRID – Desde su lanzamiento en diciembre de 2008, la campaña Global Zero, que aspira a hacer realidad el sueño de un mundo sin armas nucleares, se ha encontrado con algunos desafíos formidables. Uno de ellos se relaciona con la disposición de las dos principales potencias nucleares (Rusia y Estados Unidos) para pasar de la reducción de sus arsenales nucleares, según lo acordado en el tratado New START, a su eliminación total. Otros tienen que ver con la cuestión de si las potencias nucleares menos importantes acompañarán la iniciativa y si es posible implementar sistemas confiables para la inspección, la verificación y la imposición de los términos de los acuerdos.

Pero estas cuestiones no son el verdadero problema. Aunque Rusia y Estados Unidos poseen aproximadamente el 90% de las ojivas nucleares del mundo, esta capacidad nuclear no es una amenaza tan grande como sí lo es el riesgo de proliferación. Por eso, más que en las sutilezas del equilibrio justo entre los arsenales nucleares de Estados Unidos y Rusia, la iniciativa de lograr un mundo sin armas nucleares debería concentrarse en la amenaza que supone la multiplicación de estados nuclearizados. De hecho, alentar un comportamiento ejemplar por parte de las dos grandes potencias nucleares no es tan importante para la credibilidad del objetivo de Global Zero (lograr “un mundo sin armas nucleares”) como sí lo es encarar los problemas de seguridad que hay detrás de la competencia nuclear en ciertas regiones conflictivas.

Al fin y al cabo, si Estados Unidos y Rusia, que hoy acumulan arsenales nucleares suficientes para destruirse mutuamente muchas veces, los reducen hasta que solo les alcancen para destruirse mutuamente algunas veces, ¿deberían Corea del Norte, India, Pakistán, Irán e Israel sentirse conmovidos? Aunque la mejora en las relaciones bilaterales de las dos grandes potencias nucleares es digna de destacar, está totalmente fuera de sincronía con las condiciones que imperan en otras regiones del mundo más convulsionadas.

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