Syrian refugee and her baby. World Bank Photo Collection/Flickr

La agonía y el éxodo

BRUSELAS – El éxodo trágico de gente de Siria, un país desgarrado por la guerra, y de los países circundantes desafía la razón y la compasión del mundo. Desde 2011, unos cuatro millones de personas huyeron de Siria y muchos millones más se desplazaron internamente. Los vecinos de Siria -Jordania, Líbano y Turquía- actualmente dan asilo a la gran mayoría de los desplazados externamente. Pero, a medida que progresó la crisis, cientos de miles de refugiados se han dirigido hacia Europa. La mayoría tomó la ruta marina, de un peligro extremo.

La naturaleza y la magnitud de este éxodo han tornado obsoletas todas las suposiciones legales y políticas previas sobre la migración. En el pasado, el principal motivo para la migración era económico. El debate al que dio lugar la migración económica se libraba entre los liberales, que defendían el principio del libre movimiento de la mano de obra, y quienes querían restricciones al movimiento entre países para proteger los empleos, la cultura y/o la cohesión política.

A medida que el mundo se fue llenando de estados naciones y la gente fue ocupando los espacios vacíos, la restricción se impuso al movimiento libre. Los controles migratorios se expandieron después de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Todos los países desarrollaron políticas de población.

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