Habitação contra habitat

CAMBRIDGE – De acordo com a célebre frase de Peter Drucker, o influente guru da administração: “O que não é medido, não pode ser realizado.” Podia ter acrescentado que o que não é bem medido produzirá um mau resultado.

Vejamos, por exemplo, o caso das habitações a preços moderados. A maioria dos países em desenvolvimento e muitos países ricos definem o seu défice habitacional em função do número de famílias que vivem em unidades habitacionais consideradas socialmente inaceitáveis. No entanto, o que se entende por inaceitável varia consideravelmente de país para país. A água canalizada, o saneamento básico e a electricidade são considerados essenciais nas Américas, mas não na Índia.

O problema reside no facto de as pessoas não exigirem casas, mas sim habitats. Uma casa é um objecto, um habitat é um nó que faz parte de uma multiplicidade de redes interligadas - físicas (energia, água e saneamento, estradas), económicas (transportes urbanos, mercados de trabalho, distribuição e comércio, entretenimento) e sociais (educação, saúde, segurança, família, amigos). A capacidade de estabelecer ligações a todas estas redes torna o habitat valioso.

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