tanks in Turkey Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Réformer le secteur de la sécurité dans les pays arabes

WASHINGTON, DC – L'expérience du monde arabe démontre combien les approches technocratiques se révèlent inadéquates lorsqu'il s'agit de réformer le secteur de la sécurité. Sans véritable amélioration de la gouvernance régissant les service de sécurité, la démarche consistant uniquement à placer un accent technocratique sur l'optimisation des compétences et des capacités opérationnelles peut facilement se trouver anéantie par l'œuvre de coalitions opposées aux réformes, le tout aboutissant à une situation dans laquelle perdurent les modèles comportementaux régressifs.

Cette réalité se vérifie particulièrement au sein d'environnements politiques et sociaux polarisés – les cas les plus évidents étant aujourd'hui l'Égypte, l'Irak, la Lybie ou encore le Yémen, sans parler du Bahreïn ou de la Syrie. Pour autant, même dans les pays présentant un certain degré de pluralisme politique et ne connaissant pas de conflit armé intérieur ou d'agitation civile majeure – tels que le Liban et la Tunisie, voire l'Autorité palestinienne et l'Algérie – les approches par petits pas ne produisent que des résultats partiels. La création d'un service de maintien de l’ordre public véritablement moderne, qui puisse rendre des comptes, exige bien davantage qu'un simple bricolage technocratique.

Au-delà des simples cadres juridiques formels, un certain nombre d'obstacles à la mise en œuvre d'audits efficaces empêchent le contrôle des flux financiers en direction et au sein même des services de polices et des agences nationales de sécurité. Par ailleurs, ces institutions se montrent bien souvent capables à la fois de suivre une formation officielle de lutte contre la corruption et de poursuivre le cours habituel de leurs méfaits.

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