tanks in Turkey Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

改革阿拉伯国家的安全部门

发自华盛顿——阿拉伯世界的经验表明,在涉及到安全部门改革问题的时候,光靠技术官僚的手段是不够的。简而言之,如果只是像技术官僚那样将重点放在提高技能和行动能力上,却未能改善安全部门的治理水平,最终就很容易被反改革联盟推翻,导致这种开倒车的行为模式一直延续下去。

而这点在两极化的政治和社会环境下显得尤为突出——最明显的例子莫过于如今的埃及、 伊拉克、 利比亚和也门,更别提巴林和叙利亚了。但即使那些存在某种程度的政治多元化且并未发生内乱或国内武装冲突的国家——比如黎巴嫩和突尼斯,以及可能成立的巴勒斯坦权力机构和阿尔及利亚等 ——渐进的手段仅能实现一部分成功。创建一个完全现代化和负责任的安全服务需要的可不仅仅是技术官僚式的修修补补。

无论是否存在正式的法律框架,但将有效审计隔离在外的壁垒令外界无法监察警察部门和安全机构内的资金流动。此外,这类机构往往会一边接受正式反腐败培训,一边照常收受钱财。

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