La réforme nécessaire de l’industrie militaire russe

La Russie a lancé, pendant le mandat du président Vladimir Poutine, un programme complet visant à restructurer son industrie de la défense, qui a diminué de façon impressionnante depuis l’époque soviétique. Ce domaine a connu quelques progrès, mais des problèmes structurels fondamentaux persistent, qui poussent la Russie à exporter de grandes quantités d’armes de pointe à des régions enclins aux conflits, plaçant le Kremlin en porte-à-faux par rapport à l’Europe, aux États-Unis et à d’autres pays.

Au cours des six dernières années, l’administration Poutine a encouragé la nationalisation et la consolidation des entreprises de défense du secteur privé pour en faire de vastes holdings intégrés verticalement et contrôlés par l’État. En novembre 2000, Poutine a approuvé la création d’une agence unique d’exportation d’armes contrôlée par le gouvernement, Rosoboronexport, afin de mettre un terme à la concurrence destructrice qui s’était développée entre les principales entreprises exportatrices d’armes du pays. Au début de l’année, cette agence a gagné le droit exclusif de vendre des armes russes à des pays étrangers.

Le gouvernement est aujourd’hui en train de promouvoir la création du même genre d’institution dans le secteur de l’aviation, la nouvelle Compagnie aéronautique unifiée, qui comprend les principaux fabriquant d’État et privés d’aéronefs à voilure fixe. Les auteurs de la proposition de fusion pensent qu’elle améliorera l’efficacité de l’industrie aéronautique russe et, en diminuant les coûts, qu’elle rendra les avions russes plus attractifs pour les acheteurs étrangers.

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