Die Reform der Deutschen Streitkräfte

MÜNCHEN: Welchen militärischen Bedrohungen stehen die Länder Europas gegenwärtig gegenüber? Wie groß müssen die Streitkräfte sein, um dieser Gefahr entgegenwirken zu können? Wieviel sind die Regierungen bereit dafür bezahlen? Die Debatte über diese Themen hat nun auch die größte Armee Westeuropas erfaßt: die Deutsche Bundeswehr. Die Folgen dieser Umstrukturierung betreffen nicht nur Deutschland, sondern auch seine Partner in der Nato und der EU.

Hierzulande wird diese Debatte mit einiger Verspätung geführt. Vor einem Jahrzehnt endete der Kalte Krieg, und die meisten Verbündeten Deutschlands beschäftigten sich mit diesem Thema bereits vor einigen Jahren. Diese Verzögerung in Deutschland hat zwei Gründe: Deutschlands Sicherheitslage hat sich am dramatischsten verändert, und die Deutschen hängen immer noch stark an der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht

Revolutionen laufen schnell ab, aber es braucht einige Zeit, sich an die dadurch eintretenden Veränderungen anzupassen. Ein halbes Jahrhundert lang war Deutschland der Schauplatz, an dem der Kalte Krieg am ehesten heiß geworden wäre. Doch dann, beginnend im Frühling 1990, kam die Deutsche Wiedervereinigung und der Zerfall des Warschauer Pakts und der UdSSR, und die Länder östlich von Deutschland, die ehemaligen Außenposten sowjetischer Panzerarmeen, wurden zu Freunden, später zu Partnern. Im Jahr 1994 verließ der letzte russische Soldat deutschen Boden.

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