Реформирование экономической реформы

В течение последних 15 лет экономисты пользовались, вероятно, бульшим влиянием, чем в любой другой период истории. Политику централизованного планирования, "дирижизма" и замещения импорта, которой руководствовались в 50-е и 60-е годы страны, недавно ставшие независимыми, можно было бы назвать идеями коммунистов, социалистов-фабианцев и националистов, а не образованных экономистов. Политика же ослабления регулирования, приватизации и либерализации торговли (так называемое "Вашингтонское соглашение"), принятая странами в 80-е годы, предположительно означала победу профессиональных экономистов над политиками-популистами.

Парадокс заключается в том, что это вовсе не стало победой для экономики. Действительно, последние два десятилетия оказались мрачными для "мрачной науки". За немногими исключениями, положение в странах, где верх взяла экономическая технократия, получившая образование в США, ухудшилось по сравнению с периодом до начала 80-х годов.

Буксующая, застойная экономика стран Латинской Америки, в наибольшей степени воспринявших идеи "Вашингтонского соглашения", представляет собой первоклассный образец этого. Наибольших успехов в развитии экономики в последние годы добились страны наподобие Китая и Вьетнама, где западные экономические идеи, если они вообще принимались в расчёт, проиграли более практичным представлениям.

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