Liu Lei/Getty Images

Reforma nebo rozvod v Evropě

NEW YORK – Tvrdit, že si eurozóna od krize z roku 2008 nevede dobře, je slabé slovo. Její členské země vykazují horší výsledky než členové Evropské unie stojící mimo eurozónu a mnohem horší výsledky než Spojené státy, které byly epicentrem krize.

Členové eurozóny, jimž se daří nejhůře, se utápějí v depresi nebo hluboké recesi; jejich stav – vzpomeňme na Řecko – je v mnoha ohledech horší než stav ekonomik, které ve 30. letech procházely velkou hospodářskou krizí. Členové eurozóny s nejlepší kondicí, jako je Německo, sice vypadají dobře, ale jen v porovnání s ostatními a jejich růstový model je zčásti založený na principu „ožebrač bližního svého“, kdy se úspěch dostavuje na úkor někdejších „partnerů“.

Tento stav se vysvětluje čtyřmi způsoby. Německo rádo dělá z oběti viníka, když poukazuje na řeckou rozmařilost a na dluhy a schodky jinde v Evropě. Tím však zapřahá vůz před koně: Španělsko a Irsko vykazovaly před eurokrizí přebytky a nízké poměry dluhu k HDP. Schodky a dluhy tedy způsobila krize, nikoliv naopak.

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