Liu Lei/Getty Images

欧洲:改革,还是分裂

发自纽约——如果说欧元区自2008年金融危机以来的表现不尽人意,那简直是在夸他们了。事实上欧元区国家的表现比欧元区外的欧盟国家更差,甚至比位处危机中心的美国更加糟糕。

那些表现最差的欧元区国家都深陷萧条或严重衰退之中;他们的状况——试想希腊——在许多方面都比上世纪30年代大萧条时期的经济体更糟。而那些表现最佳的欧元区成员国——如德国——虽然看似光鲜,但也只是矮子里面拔将军而已;因为这些国家的增长模式都在某种程度上基于以邻为壑的政策,所有的成就都来自于昔日“合作伙伴”的牺牲。

各方已经提出了四种不同类型的解释来解释这种状况。德国喜欢责怪受害者,指责希腊挥霍无度以及其他国家的债务和赤字。但这属于本末倒置:西班牙和爱尔兰在欧元危机前都拥有盈余和较低的负债相对GDP比率。因此是危机导致了赤字和债务的产生,而不是反过来。

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