Las nuevas fronteras de la lealtad

LONDRES – Este es un momento complicado para ser un Estado, y un momento aún más complicado para ser ciudadano. El Estado-Nación, quien es el proveedor clásico de  seguridad y  bienestar básicos a cambio de la lealtad de los ciudadanos, está bajo amenaza –en el ámbito doméstico y como la unidad fundamental de los asuntos internacionales.

En la actualidad existen nuevos tipos de asociaciones y lealtades que desafían el papel tradicional del Estado. Algunas de estas nuevas lealtades son geográficas. Sólo en Europa, hay por lo menos 40 aspirantes a ser como Escocia, es decir lugares que quisieran buscar algún tipo de separación del los países en los que ahora se encuentran. Otras lealtades se basan en otras identidades creadas por las afinidades – no sólo por las afinidades religiosas o étnicas, sino que las basadas en interés comunes, como por ejemplo, afinidades comerciales, políticas u otras. Hoy en día muchos más de nosotros apoyamos a una ONG en comparación a quienes son miembros de partidos políticos.

En resumen, nuestras lealtades, sobre todo en Occidente, muy rara vez en el pasado parecieron estar más divididas de lo que hoy están. Amartya Sen, premio Nobel de economía, ha argumentado que podemos aprender a vivir con estas múltiples identidades e incluso prosperar con la diversidad de  ciudadanías y lealtades que nos permiten tener.

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