Les nouvelles frontières de l’allégeance

LONDRES – Nous vivons une époque compliquée pour les États, et encore délicate plus pour les citoyens. En effet, ce garant traditionnel de sécurité et de bien-être essentiel que constitue l’État-nation, auquel les citoyens offrent en retour leur loyauté, se trouve aujourd’hui menacé – aussi bien sur les territoires nationaux que dans ce qu’il représente en tant qu’unité fondamentale des affaires internationales.

Loyauté et démarches d’association d’un nouveau genre mettent aujourd’hui à mal le rôle traditionnel des États. Certaines allégeances revêtent une nature géographique. Rien qu’en Europe, on dénombre au moins 40 régions aspirant à une certaine forme de séparation à l’écart du pays auquel elles appartiennent. D’autres types de loyauté reposent sur une appartenance identitaire – pas seulement religieuse ou ethnique, mais parfois inspirée par des intérêts communs sur le plan des affaires, de la politique, ou autre. Aujourd’hui, nous sommes beaucoup plus nombreux à soutenir un certain nombre d’ONG que nous n’appartenons à quelque parti politique.

En somme, l’allégeance dont nous faisons preuve, et particulièrement dans le monde occidental, a rarement semblée aussi divisée qu’à l’heure actuelle. Amartya Sen, prix Nobel d’économie, a fait valoir que nous pouvions apprendre à vivre avec ces identités multiples, et même nous épanouir dans la diversité de citoyennetés et des loyautés que nous confère cette multiplicité.

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