Una nueva concepción del capitalismo

PARÍS – Cuando los Jefes de Estado de las veinte mayores economías del mundo se reúnen, tras decidirlo con poca antelación, como acaban de hacer en Washington, D.C., no cabe duda de la gravedad de la actual crisis mundial. No han decidido gran cosa, excepto pedir una mayor vigilancia y reglamentación de las corrientes financieras. Más importante es que se comprometieran a lanzar un proceso duradero para reformar el sistema monetario internacional.

Naturalmente, los que soñaban con un segundo Bretton Woods quedaron decepcionados, pero el marco original de Bretton Woods no se construyó en un día; de hecho, la conferencia de 1944 fue precedida de dos años y medio de negociaciones preparatorias, lo que probablemente sea el mínimo necesario para decidir sobre cuestiones tan importantes. La reciente cumbre del G-20 se celebró sin apenas labor preliminar verdadera.

Ahora hay que abordar tres tareas. En primer lugar, hay que poner un suelo bajo el sistema financiero internacional para detener su desplome. En segundo lugar, se necesitan nuevas reglamentaciones, una vez que reviva el sistema, porque, si sigue igual, no dejará de producir nuevas crisis. No será fácil encontrar la combinación idónea. Durante 25 años, el mundo ha experimentado una enorme crisis financiera cada cinco años, cada una de ellas con su propia causa, aparentemente.

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