Refonder le capitalisme !

PARIS – Lorsque les chefs d’Etat des vingt plus grands pays industriels de la planète se réunissent d'urgence comme ils viennent de le faire récemment lors du G20 à Washington, c'est le signe de la gravité de la situation. Ils n’ont pas décidé grand-chose, sinon d’appeler à améliorer la surveillance et la réglementation des mouvements financiers sur la planète. Mais ils ont surtout engagé un processus à long terme destiné à réformer le système financier mondial.

Ceux qui ont rêvé d'un Bretton Woods II ont sûrement été déçus. Mais les accords de Bretton Woods ne se sont pas fait en un jour. La conférence de 1944 avait été précédée par deux ans et demi de travail préparatoire, ce qui est sans doute le minimum nécessaire pour décider de problèmes aussi importants. Or le G20 s’est réuni sans pratiquement aucune phase préparatoire.

Trois choses sont à faire. La première est d’enrayer l’effondrement du système financier international. La seconde est d’arrêter de nouvelles règles du jeu pour que ce système une fois revigoré ne conduise pas à de nouvelles crises, car si on le restaure à l'identique, c'est ce qui se produira. Il ne sera pas facile de trouver le bon équilibre. On a tout de même connu une grande crise financière tous les cinq ans depuis vingt-cinq ans, apparemment chaque fois pour des raisons différentes.

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