Jak přeuspořádat kapitalismus

PAŘÍŽ – Když se bez velkých příprav sejdou hlavy států 20 největších světových ekonomik, jak se nedávno stalo ve Washingtonu, je zřejmé, že současná globální krize je velmi vážná. Žádná velká rozhodnutí na schůzce nepadla a účastníci se omezili na výzvy ke zlepšení monitoringu a regulace finančních toků. Důležitější ovšem je, že se rovněž zavázali zahájit trvalý proces reformy světové finanční soustavy.

Ti, kdo snili o druhém Bretton Woods, byli samozřejmě zklamáni. Ani původní rámec Bretton Woods však nevznikl ze dne na den; konferenci z roku 1944 předcházela přípravná jednání trvající dva a půl roku, což je pravděpodobně minimální čas potřebný k rozhodování o tak závažných otázkách. Nedávný summit G-20 se přitom uskutečnil prakticky bez jakékoliv skutečné předběžné práce.

Nyní musíme vyřešit tři úkoly. Za prvé musí mezinárodní finanční soustava získat pevnou půdu pod nohama, aby se zcela nezhroutila. Za druhé jsou zapotřebí nová regulační opatření, jakmile systém ožije, protože zůstane-li ve stejné podobě, pouze vyvolá nové krize. Najít správnou směs nebude snadné. V uplynulém čtvrtstoletí zažíval svět každých pět let obrovskou finanční krizi a každá z nich měla podle všeho vlastní příčinu.

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