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假新闻的真实面

纽约—如今,数字设备和社交网络为我们带来浩如烟淼的信息,即使是最精明的信息消费者,也无法评估所有信息。我们好像生活在赫胥黎(Aldous Huxley)的《美丽新世界》(Brave New World)中,真相淹没在无关事项的汪洋中。但未来未必是当下似乎意味着的反乌托邦。

从社交媒体获取新闻的美国人比例近几年来增长迅猛,2016年已达62%。但据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的一项最新研究,媒体、学术、技术和出版专业人士越来越认为互联网已经成为充斥着仇恨言论、愤怒和恶意挑衅垃圾场。

如今,来到我们的数字家门口的大部分东西最多只算得上是“假新闻”:骗人的故事、宣传和其他形式的误导信息。但尽管“假新闻”是一个非常真的问题的有用的标签,它并没有告诉我们,我们是否真的生活在一个“后真相”(post-truth)的世界中;以及,如果答案是肯定的话,我们中谁必须为此负责。要回答这些问题,我们需要考察一下假新闻基础设施。

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