Red Sea and boat

Relier la mer Rouge

VILLE ÉCONOMIQUE DU ROI ABDALLAH – La mer Rouge joue un rôle décisif dans le commerce mondial depuis des millénaires. Du temps des pharaons, elle était au cœur du commerce mondial des épices. Aujourd’hui, elle est une artère mondiale essentielle, comblant la demande occidentale d’hydrocarbures et facilitant la circulation des marchandises entre l’Europe et les marchés d’Asie en plein essor. Plus de 10 % du commerce mondial transite par le bassin de la mer Rouge chaque année, un chiffre qui devrait augmenter du fait que l’Égypte est en train de doubler la capacité du canal de Suez.

Et pourtant, sauf quelques exceptions, la grande part de la richesse contemporaine générée par le commerce vogue rapidement au loin, laissant de miettes sur son passage. Rien ne justifie que ce devrait être encore le cas. Une initiative régionale pour faciliter le commerce et créer des infrastructures pourrait repositionner les pays limitrophes à la mer Rouge en tant que destination d’investissements mondiaux et d’échanges internationaux.

La région de la mer Rouge, comprenant 20 pays qui se servent de cet itinéraire comme premier corridor des échanges, est le plus grand marché connaissant la plus grande croissance et la plus sous-exploitée du monde. Au cours des 35 prochaines années, les Nations Unies prévoient que la population de la région fera plus que doubler, des 620 millions actuels à 1,3 milliard. Cette croissance de la population sera accompagnée d’un des taux d’urbanisation les plus élevés du monde, créant une classe moyenne grandissante, qui selon les estimations de la Brookings Institution passera de 136 millions aujourd’hui à 343 millions avant 2050.

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