Nejprve zotavení, pak reforma

LONDÝN – Finanční krize, která začala v roce 2007, zmenšila světovou ekonomiku o 6% za dva roky a zdvojnásobila nezaměstnanost. Její bezprostřední příčinou bylo predátorské půjčování peněz bankami, takže lidé mají přirozeně vztek a chtějí, aby padaly hlavy a bonusy – toto smýšlení ztělesňují současné celosvětové protesty proti „Wall Streetu“.

Banky však nejsou jen součástí problému, ale i nezbytnou součástí řešení. Stejné instituce, které krizi zapříčinily, ji také musí pomoci vyřešit tím, že začnou znovu půjčovat. Vzhledem k ochabování celosvětové poptávky musí být prioritou zotavení, aniž se opustí reformní cíl – z politického hlediska je to obtížná linie.

Společným jmenovatelem reformy je potřeba opětovně nastavit regulaci sektoru finančních služeb. Experti před krizí halasně tvrdili, že „efektivní“ finanční trhy lze bezpečně ponechat, ať se regulují samy. V souladu s kořistnickým duchem, který v té době ve finančním sektoru převažoval, prohlásil v roce 2006 Mezinárodní měnový fond, že „rozšíření úvěrového rizika bankami mezi širší a pestřejší skupinu investorů… pomohlo učinit bankovní i celý finanční systém pružnějšími…“ V důsledku toho prý „komerční banky mohou být méně zranitelné vůči… šokům“.

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