恢复美国的“软实力”

美国需要重新找到如何成为一个“软实力大国” 的方式。这是我最近与布什政府前任副国务卿阿米蒂奇共同主持的一个跨党派委员会所做出的结论。软实力委员会由位于华盛顿的战略和国际问题研究中心召集,包括国会的共和和民主两党议员,前任大使,退休将领以及非营利组织领导人。我们得出结论认为,美国的形象和影响力在最近几年中下滑,美国必须从出口恐惧转向出口鼓舞人心的乐观主义和希望。

并非只有我们持有这一观点。最近,美国国防部长盖茨呼吁美国政府在“软实力”上投入更多的财力和精力,包括外交、经济援助以及沟通,因为仅仅凭借军事无法防护美国的全球利益。盖茨指出,与国务院每年预算的360亿美元相比,军费开支每年总计五千亿美元。他承认,对于国防部长而言,请求增加国务院的经费有点奇怪,但是现在并不同往常。

软实力就是结合恫吓或者支付的硬性实力以及吸引的软性实力组成成功战略的能力。大体而言,美国在冷战时期运用了这一结合;但是,近年来美国的外交政策趋向于过度依赖于硬性实力,因为这是美国国力的最为直接和可见的来源。

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