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Оправдание Сайкса-Пико

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – В этом месяце отмечается столетие соглашения Сайкса-Пико, секретного англо-французского договора, который положил начало длившемуся целое десятилетие процессу изменения ближневосточных границ в пост-османскую эпоху. Большинство комментариев на тему юбилея негативны: утверждается, что на этом соглашении лежит значительная часть вины за частые и длительные конфликты в регионе.

Однако подобные интерпретации граничат с карикатурой. Марк Сайкс и Франсуа Жорж-Пико стремились разработать такой план, который бы помог Великобритании и Франции избежать разрушительного соперничества на Ближнем Востоке. В главном они преуспели: их проект не позволил региону стать яблоком раздора между двумя европейскими державами; и он просуществовал целое столетие.

Конечно, многие из границ, установленных соглашением Сайкса-Пико, отражали достигнутые в Европе договорённости, а не местные демографические или исторические реалии. Однако в этом Ближний Восток вряд ли уникален: большинство границ в мире являются результатом не хорошо продуманных планов или народных решений, а комбинации насилия, амбиций, географических особенностей и случая.

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