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Jak se srovnat se Sykes-Picotovou dohodou

NEW YORK – Letos v květnu uplynulo sto let od podpisu Sykes-Picotovy dohody, tajné úmluvy mezi Velkou Británií a Francií, která zahájila desetiletí trvající úpravy hranic postosmanského Blízkého východu. Většina komentářů k tomuto výročí vyznívá negativně a naznačuje, že dohodě lze připsat značný díl viny za četnost a trvalost konfliktů v regionu.

Tento výklad však hraničí s karikaturou. Mark Sykes a François Georges-Picot si kladli za cíl vymyslet plán, jenž by Velké Británii a Francii umožnil vyhnout se ničivému soupeření na Blízkém východě. Do značné míry se jim to podařilo: díky jejich návrhu se blízkovýchodní region neocitl mezi dvěma evropskými mocnostmi a podařilo se mu přežít celé století.

Jistě, řada hranic vytyčených Sykesem a Picotem byla odrazem dohod upečených v Evropě, nikoliv místní demografické či historické reality. V tom však Blízký východ rozhodně není výjimečný: většina hranic po celém světě vznikla nikoliv v důsledku prozíravého plánování či rozhodnutí obyvatel, ale spíše kombinací násilí, ambicí, zeměpisných podmínek a náhody.

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