El precio de la paz

MADRID – La relación entre paz y justicia es desde hace mucho tiempo tema de un arduo y conflictivo debate. Algunos dicen que el afán de justicia puede ser un obstáculo en la búsqueda de soluciones a los conflictos, mientras que otros (entre quienes se cuenta Fatou Bensouda, fiscal general del Tribunal Penal Internacional) afirman que la justicia es una precondición de la paz. Esta cuestión debería ser objeto de una cuidadosa consideración de parte del presidente de Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos, en momentos en que dirige las conversaciones de paz más prometedoras que haya habido en su país, tras cinco décadas de conflicto brutal con las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC).

Un modelo ideal de aplicación de justicia post-conflicto puede hallarse en los juicios de Núremberg, celebrados tras la rendición incondicional de la Alemania Nazi en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Pero cuando se trata de conflictos que terminan sin vencedores ni vencidos, la tarea del pacificador es mucho más compleja, ya que en estos casos, lo que está en juego puede obligar a elegir entre la reconciliación y la búsqueda de responsabilidades.

De 1945 a esta parte, la historia nos muestra más de 500 casos de transiciones post‑conflicto que incluyeron una amnistía; y desde los años setenta, al menos catorce países (entre ellos España, Mozambique y Brasil) otorgaron amnistías a regímenes culpables de graves violaciones a los derechos humanos. En Sudáfrica, la amnistía fue un elemento clave del proceso de “verdad y reconciliación” que hizo posible poner fin a más de cuatro décadas de gobierno de la minoría blanca y lograr una transición pacífica hacia la democracia.

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