O Preço da Paz

MADRID – A relação entre paz e justiça é, desde há muito, tema para debates acesos. Uns argumentam que a procura da justiça impede esforços no sentido da resolução dos conflitos, enquanto outros – incluindo o Procurador-Geral do Tribunal Penal Internacional, Fatou Bensouda – defendem que a justiça é um pré-requisito para a paz. O Presidente Juan Manuel Santos, que está a guiar a Colômbia através das mais promissoras conversações de paz em cinco décadas de conflito brutal com as Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia (FARC), deverá analisar cuidadosamente esta questão.

Os julgamentos de Nuremberga, que se seguiram à rendição incondicional da Alemanha Nazi na II Guerra Mundial, fornecem um modelo ideal para a justiça pós-conflito. Mas, em conflitos onde nenhuma parte foi derrotada, a função do pacificador torna-se mais desafiante. Dado o que está em jogo, um compromisso entre reconciliação e responsabilização poderá bem ser inevitável.

Desde 1945, foram registados mais de 500 casos de amnistia em transições pós-conflito; desde a década de 1970, pelo menos 14 estados – incluindo Espanha, Moçambique, e Brasil – amnistiaram regimes culpados de sérias violações dos direitos humanos. Na África do Sul, a amnistia foi uma característica central do processo de “verdade e reconciliação” que facilitou a transição pacífica para a democracia de mais de quatro décadas de governação pela minoria branca.

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