Le prix de la paix

MADRID – La relation entre la paix et la justice est depuis longtemps le sujet de débats polarisés. Certains font valoir l’argument que la poursuite de la justice retarde les efforts de résolution de conflits, tandis que d’autres – dont Fatou Bensouda, la procureure en chef de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI)– déclarent que la justice est une condition préalable à la paix. À titre de président de Colombie, Juan Manuel Santos dirige les pourparlers de paix des plus prometteurs après avoir traversé les cinq dernières décennies de conflits brutaux contre les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC), il devra aborder cette question avec doigté.

Le procès de Nuremberg, qui a suivi la reddition inconditionnelle de l’Allemagne nazie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, fournit un modèle idéal de justice après un conflit. Toutefois, dans des conflits où aucune faction n’a été défaite, la tâche des artisans de la paix devient beaucoup plus ardue. Étant donné les enjeux, une position mitoyenne entre la réconciliation et la responsabilité criminelle est peut-être inévitable.

Depuis1945, plus de 500 cas d’amnistie dans des transitions après les conflits ont été recensés ; depuis les années 1970, au moins 14 États – dont l’Espagne, le Mozambique et le Brésil – ont accordé l’amnistie à des régimes coupables de graves violations des droits de l’homme. En Afrique du Sud, l’amnistie a été un élément déterminant du processus de « vérité et de réconciliation » qui a facilité la transition pacifique vers la démocratie après plus de quatre décennies de domination politique de la minorité blanche.

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