Le prix de la paix

MADRID – La relation entre la paix et la justice est depuis longtemps le sujet de débats polarisés. Certains font valoir l’argument que la poursuite de la justice retarde les efforts de résolution de conflits, tandis que d’autres – dont Fatou Bensouda, la procureure en chef de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI)– déclarent que la justice est une condition préalable à la paix. À titre de président de Colombie, Juan Manuel Santos dirige les pourparlers de paix des plus prometteurs après avoir traversé les cinq dernières décennies de conflits brutaux contre les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC), il devra aborder cette question avec doigté.

Le procès de Nuremberg, qui a suivi la reddition inconditionnelle de l’Allemagne nazie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, fournit un modèle idéal de justice après un conflit. Toutefois, dans des conflits où aucune faction n’a été défaite, la tâche des artisans de la paix devient beaucoup plus ardue. Étant donné les enjeux, une position mitoyenne entre la réconciliation et la responsabilité criminelle est peut-être inévitable.

Depuis1945, plus de 500 cas d’amnistie dans des transitions après les conflits ont été recensés ; depuis les années 1970, au moins 14 États – dont l’Espagne, le Mozambique et le Brésil – ont accordé l’amnistie à des régimes coupables de graves violations des droits de l’homme. En Afrique du Sud, l’amnistie a été un élément déterminant du processus de « vérité et de réconciliation » qui a facilité la transition pacifique vers la démocratie après plus de quatre décennies de domination politique de la minorité blanche.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/GGlIDwj/fr;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now