Réconcilier le Hamas et le Fatah

GAZA/JERUSALEM – Les Palestiniens, au moins autant que les Américains et les Européens, vont observer de près les délégations du Hamas et du Fatah réunies au Caire pour le quatrième tour de pourparlers d'union nationale. Sous le patronage du chef des renseignements égyptien Omar Suleiman, les discussions de haute voltige seront d’une importance capitale pour mettre fin à presque deux années de confrontation sanglante entre Gaza, dirigé par le Hamas, et la Cisjordanie, dirigée par le Fatah dont le chef Mahmoud Abbas est soutenu par les occidentaux. Au vu des échecs précédents, ce tour de négociations pourrait bien être la dernière chance de rétablir l’unité en Palestine.

Le schisme permanent entre le Fatah laïc et plus modéré et le mouvement islamique du Hamas a semé la confusion au sein du gouvernement palestinien. Il a de plus rendu pratiquement impossible tous pourparlers de paix sérieux avec Israël. En outre, cette désunion interne permanente continue de faire échouer tout effort de reconstruction à Gaza, reconstruction indispensable dans l’immédiat suite à l’offensive militaire israélienne du début d’année. Le résultat des négociations du Caire aura donc des répercussions sur les Palestiniens, les Israéliens, et sur toute personne concernée par le processus de paix au Proche-Orient.

Lors des tours précédents, les diverses factions se sont mises d'accord sur le principe de former un gouvernement uni pour Gaza et la Cisjordanie, et sur le fait d'organiser des élections présidentielles et législatives sur les territoires palestiniens d’ici à janvier 2010. Mais de fondamentales divergences subsistent toujours entre le Fatah et le Hamas quant à la manière de former un gouvernement dont la tâche serait de préparer les élections.

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