Bottle of champagne Dominic Lipinski/Getty Images

这件叫做美国梦的东西

纽约—1968年,偏激记者亨特·汤普森(Hunter S. Thompson)构想了“这个叫做《美国梦之死》(Death of the American Dream)的东西”。但这个叫做美国梦的东西是什么?它如何成为独特的美国的东西?

对一些人来说,美国梦就是美国人认定美国经济物资丰饶,必定能够带来其他经济所无法想象的生活水平的信念,即无与伦比的丰富与舒适之梦。但是,尽管在十八世纪初美国就拥有最高的工资水平,但到了19世纪80年代,英国已经基本追平了与美国的工资差距,德国在1913年也几乎做到了这一点。到了20世纪70年代,德国和法国都赶上了美国。

对一些经济学家来说,美国梦就是改善生活水平的希望,即进步之梦。经济学家拉伊·切蒂(Raj Chetty)一直在追踪人们较父辈所实现的改善。他发现,1940年几乎所有没过年轻人——确切地说有90%——家庭收入要高于父辈年轻时。如此高比例主要体现了美国生产率的高速增长,它提振了工资率。但从1890年到1940年间,生产率的高速增长在英国、德国和法国也很常见——1945—1975年的“30年光荣岁月”亦然。因此,如果说美国梦就是进步的话,那么欧洲人也可以拥有这个梦。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/cY9ne28/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now