Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro attends a rally after submitting his presidential registration application CARLOS BECERRA/AFP/Getty Images

民主因何而(重)生

发自剑桥——很多事情在事后看来都清晰明了,而真正的挑战则在于如何提前了解事件和趋势,而这在民主的消亡这一点上则尤为重要。

哈佛大学教授史蒂文·列维斯基(Steven Levitsky)和丹尼尔·齐布拉特(Daniel Ziblatt)在他们出色的新书《民主制度如何死亡》中运用国际经验来审视这个问题。在最近的案例中,如匈牙利,波兰,土耳其以及委内瑞拉,或旧一点的案例,如意大利,德国,阿根廷或秘鲁,民主的死亡原因并不是一个民选政府被推翻,但是民选领导人的行为。

这些人的作恶方式也惊人地相似。经选举产生的民粹主义煽动家会腐蚀法院和其他机构的独立性,肆意限制新闻自由,破坏公平的竞争环境好让自己更容易赢得选举,抹黑和监禁政治对手,从而消灭和削弱对他的权力制衡。

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