Angela Merkel and Recep Tayyip Erdogan Schicke/Getty Images

Realismo para Europa y Turquía

BERLÍN – Las relaciones entre Europa y Turquía exhiben hace tiempo una profunda contradicción. La cooperación en materia de seguridad (especialmente durante la Guerra Fría) y los vínculos económicos han sido fuertes, pero las bases esenciales de la democracia (derechos humanos, libertad de prensa, respeto de las minorías y un sistema judicial independiente para velar por el cumplimiento de las leyes) siguen siendo débiles en Turquía. También la historia ha sido fuente de división, como atestigua la disputa sobre el reconocimiento del genocidio armenio durante la Primera Guerra Mundial.

Tras la llegada al poder del partido Justicia y Desarrollo (conocido por las siglas en turco AKP) en 2002 con Abdullah Gül, y después con Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, estos conflictos parecían superados. Durante los primeros años en el gobierno, el AKP buscó la entrada de Turquía a la Unión Europea y la modernización de su economía, para lo que implementó reformas reales (particularmente en áreas como la justicia, esencial para avanzar hacia el ingreso a la UE).

Pero Erdoğan siempre mantuvo abierta una opción “neo‑otomana”, que orientaría a Turquía hacia Medio Oriente y el mundo musulmán. Quedó patente en 2007, cuando la canciller alemana Angela Merkel y el entonces presidente francés Nicolas Sarkozy cerraron de facto la puerta de la UE para Turquía, y lo hicieron de una manera que humilló a Erdoğan.

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