Angela Merkel and Recep Tayyip Erdogan Schicke/Getty Images

Des relations réalistes entre l’Europe et la Turquie

BERLIN – Les relations entre l’Europe et la Turquie sont depuis longtemps caractérisées par un profond paradoxe. Alors que la coopération en matière de sécurité (en particulier pendant la Guerre froide) et les liens économiques ont été constants, les fondations essentielles de la démocratie – les droits humains et des minorités, la liberté de la presse et un pouvoir judiciaire indépendant capable de faire respecter l’État de droit – continuent à être fragiles en Turquie. L’histoire a elle aussi opéré un clivage entre les deux parties, comme l’atteste le différend au sujet de la reconnaissance du génocide arménien pendant la Première guerre mondiale.

Après l’arrivée au pouvoir du Parti pour la justice et le développement (AKP) sous la direction de Abdullah Gül en 2002 et plus tard celle de Recep Tayip Erdogan, ces conflits semblaient avoir été surmontés. Durant ses premières années au pouvoir, l’AKP souhaitait moderniser l’économie et voir la Turquie devenir membre de l’Union européenne. Et il a mené des réformes substantielles – en particulier dans des domaines, comme le pouvoir judiciaire, indispensables à la réalisation de progrès en vue d’une adhésion à l’UE.

Mais Erdogan a toujours préservé une option « néo-ottomane » qui ferait basculer la Turquie du côté du Moyen-Orient et du monde musulman. Cette orientation est devenue manifeste en 2007, lorsque la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel et le président français de l’époque, Nicolas Sarkozy, ont de fait bloqué le processus d’adhésion de la Turquie à l’UE, et de manière humiliante pour Erdogan.

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