El restablecimiento de la relación entre Rusia y la OTAN

VARSOVIA – A comienzos de este año, un grupo liderado por la ex secretaria de Estado norteamericana Madeleine Albright (del que formé parte) hizo público un informe sobre un nuevo concepto estratégico llamado “OTAN 2020    “. El informe recomendaba que la OTAN abriera sus puertas a nuevos miembros a la vez que buscaba una relación más constructiva con Rusia. Diseñamos una estrategia dual de asegurar a los aliados de la OTAN que sus intereses serían defendidos y, al mismo tiempo, iniciar un compromiso con el Kremlin que fuera coherente con el Acta Fundacional entre la OTAN y Rusia de 1997 y la Declaración de Roma de 2002 sobre la relación entre la OTAN y Rusia.

Tranquilizar a los gobiernos de la alianza no exige solamente que “todo compromiso constructivo tenga que basarse en reaseguros militares dentro de la OTAN”, como dijeron prominentes expertos como Wolfgang Ischinger y Ulrich Weisser. Los reaseguros de seguridad también deberían comprender medidas de fortalecimiento de la confianza, junto con un control de armas convencionales y nucleares y un desarme.

El informe Albright bosquejaba una estrategia de “re-compromiso y reaseguro”. El “restablecimiento” de las relaciones con Rusia sólo puede lograrse si es recíproco. Rusia, por lo tanto, debería aplicar dos principios fundamentales que ya aceptó en varias declaraciones. Primero, como señaló el Acta Final de Helsinki, toda nación soberana tiene un derecho inherente “a pertenecer o no pertenecer a organizaciones internacionales, a ser o no ser parte de tratados bilaterales o multilaterales, inclusive el derecho a ser o no ser parte de tratados de alianza; también tiene el derecho a la neutralidad”. Segundo, la igualdad soberana de los estados incluye el respeto de todos los derechos inherentes en la soberanía.

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