Jak znovu uchopit Friedmanovy

BERKELEY – Na mém stole právě leží nová kniha reportéra Timothyho Noaha The Great Divergence: America’s Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do about It (Velká divergence: prohlubující se americká krize nerovnosti a co s ní můžeme dělat) a také klasické dílo Miltona a Rose Friedmanových s názvem Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (Svoboda volby: Osobní výpověď). Když se nad těmito knihami zamyslím společně, převažuje u mě myšlenka na to, o kolik obtížněji by se Friedmanovým ospravedlňoval a prosazoval libertarianismus a malá vláda dnes, než tomu bylo v roce 1979.

Friedmanovi ve své době formulovali tři silná faktická tvrzení o tom, jak svět funguje – tvrzení, která se tehdy zdála pravdivá, možná pravdivá nebo přinejmenším argumentovatelná, ale dnes se jeví jako naprosto zjevně falešná. Jejich argumenty pro libertarianismus a malou vládu se opíraly převážně o tato tvrzení a nyní se do značné míry rozpadly, protože se ukázalo, že svět s nimi v otázce svého fungování nesouhlasí.

První tvrzení znělo tak, že makroekonomické potíže nezpůsobuje nestabilní soukromý trh, nýbrž vláda – nebo jinými slovy že podoba makroekonomické regulace potřebné k vytvoření ekonomické stability je jednoduchá a snadno dosažitelná.

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