استئناف الهجرة

لندن ــ في غضون ساعات من إعادة انتخاب الرئيس الأميركي باراك أوباما في الشهر الماضي، استحوذ على الناس اعتقاد قوي: وهو أن التأييد الساحق من جانب الناخبين اللاتينيين ساعد أوباما في تأمين فوزه. وفجأة، بدأ الحزب الجمهوري، المعروف منذ أمد بعيد بخطه المتشدد في التعامل مع الهجرة، في الحديث عن الحاجة إلى إصلاح شامل. وزعم الخبراء أن الجمهوريين إذا قاوموا الإصلاح فإنهم سوف يخسرون أصوات اللاتينيين على مدى الجيل القادم، وهو ما من شأنه أن ينزل حزبهم إلى مرتبة الحزب المعارض على نحو شبه دائم.

قد يكون هذا صحيحاً أو لا يكون. ولكن التأثيرات التي تخلفها الانتخابات الأميركية على الهجرة أعمق من مجرد النفعية الانتخابية ــ فهي تنطوي على دروس للحكومات في مختلف أنحاء العالم. وتشير السرعة الملحوظة التي انهارت بها المواقف المناهضة للهجرة إلى أن ما يريده أغلب الأميركيين في المقام الأول هو النهج العقلاني في التعامل مع القضية؛ فهم يريدون من زعمائهم السياسيين أن يتحملوا المسؤولية عن قضية الهجرة، لا أن يتهربوا منها.

عندما يتعلق الأمر بالهجرة، فإن ما يحرك الساسة عادة هو الخوف ــ وهو الاتجاه الذي أصبح أكثر حِدة منذ اندلاع الأزمة المالية العالمية. فقد أدى صعود القوميين المتطرفين في دول مثل اليونان وفنلندا إلى تعزيز اعتقاد مفاده أن الحديث عن الهجرة، باستثناء إيراد الحجج ضدها، هو سلوك غير مريح سياسيا. لذا فإن الساسة لا يتعاملون مع قضية الهجرة إلا في سياق أمن الحدود والهوية الثقافية، أو يتجاهلونها تماما.

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