Gerechtigkeit mit Verzögerung in Bosnien

CHICAGO – Am 24. März hat der Internationale Strafgerichtshof für das ehemalige Jugoslawien (ICTY) Radovan Karadžić – den politischen Führer der bosnischen Serben während des Balkankrieges in den 1990er Jahren – wegen Völkermordes, Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit und Kriegsverbrechen zu einer Haftstrafe von 40 Jahren verurteilt. Das Urteil wird das Völkerrecht enorm beeinflussen, jene, die ansonsten Gräueltaten begehen können, abschrecken und die Möglichkeit einer politischen Versöhnung in Bosnien eröffnen. Gesetzlose Führer wie in Syrien, dem Sudan, dem Südsudan, Russland und beim Islamischen Staat wurden gerade an ihre Verwundbarkeit gegenüber der internationalen Gerechtigkeit erinnert.

Und potenzielle Kriegsverbrecher sind nicht die einzigen, die das Urteil sorgfältig in Betracht ziehen sollten. Noch immer hallen Karadžićs hetzerische Ansichten – „Muslime können nicht mit anderen zusammenleben“, äußerte er einst – in den dunklen Ecken eines angsterfüllten Europas wider, das sich schwer tut, hunderttausende muslimischer Flüchtlinge aufzunehmen, aber auch im nativistischen Präsidentschaftswahlkampf von Donald Trump und Ted Cruz in den USA.

Vor 20 Jahren, im Jahre 1996, war ich leitender Berater von Madeleine Albright, der damaligen US-Botschafterin bei den Vereinten Nationen. Im Nationalen Sicherheitsrat der USA drängten wir hart auf eine Verhaftung Karadžićs; er war gemeinsam mit dem bosnischen Serbengeneral Ratko Mladić, dessen Verfahren in Den Haag noch läuft, im Vorjahr vom ICTY angeklagt worden. Doch jahrelang entzogen sich beide Männer der Verhaftung, u. a., weil viele NATO- und US-Vertreter nicht bereit waren, die mit einer Verhaftung beider verbundenen Risiken einzugehen.

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