Objectivos Radicais para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável

BERLIM – Imaginemos por um momento que podemos mudar o mundo de acordo com os nossos desejos. A dramática desigualdade económica dá lugar à inclusão social e política. Os direitos humanos universais tornam-se uma realidade. Acabamos com a desflorestação e a destruição da terra arável. As reservas piscícolas recuperam. Dois mil milhões de pessoas anseiam por uma vida sem pobreza, fome, e violência. Em vez de nos limitarmos a falar da mudança climática e da escassez de recursos, começamos a respeitar e a preservar os limites do nosso planeta e da sua atmosfera.

Era essa a intenção em 2001, quando as Nações Unidas adoptaram os Objectivos de Desenvolvimento do Milénio. E será essa a intenção no próximo ano, quando os ODM expirarem e a ONU adoptar um enquadramento que lhes suceda, para a política ambiental e de desenvolvimento. O próximo conjunto de Objectivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) procurará proteger ecossistemas, conservar recursos, e, tal como os ODM, tirar milhões de pessoas da pobreza.

Combinar enquadramentos ambientais e de desenvolvimento é uma boa ideia – uma ideia que aproveita o sucesso de inúmeros acordos e convenções juridicamente vinculativos, elaborados sob os auspícios da ONU para proteger o clima, conservar a biodiversidade, defender os direitos humanos, e reduzir a pobreza. Embora possam não ser perfeitos – e, infelizmente, os países que os ratificam nem sempre alcançam as suas metas – conduziram à criação de processos institucionais que encorajam os países a cumprir as suas promessas e que incentivam os cidadãos a responsabilizar os governos.

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