Des objectifs radicaux pour le développement durable

BERLIN – Imaginons un moment que nous puissions changer le monde à notre idée. Les dramatiques inégalités économiques laissent place à l’inclusion sociale et politique. Les droits humains universels deviennent une réalité. Nous mettons fin à la déforestation et à la destruction des terres arables. Les réserves de poissons se reconstituent. Deux milliards d’individus s’impatientent de vivre sans pauvreté, ni faim, ni violence. Plutôt que de prêter une oreille distante au changement climatique et à la raréfaction des ressources, nous commençons à respecter et à faire respecter les limites de notre planète et de son atmosphère.

Tel était l’objectif en 2001, lorsque les Etats-Unis adoptèrent les Objectifs de Développement du Millénaire. Et tel sera l’objectif l’année prochaine, à l’expiration des ODM, lorsque l’ONU adoptera un nouveau cadre pour la politique de l’environnement et de développement. Les futurs Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD) viseront à protéger les écosystèmes, conserver les ressources, et tout comme les ODM, permettre à des millions d’êtres humains de s’extraire de la pauvreté.

Combiner l’environnement et le développement est une bonne idée – une idée qui provient du succès d’un grand nombre de conventions et d’accords internationaux contraignants conçus sous les auspices de l’ONU pour protéger le climat, conserver la biodiversité, faire respecter les droits humains, et réduire la pauvreté. S’ils ne sont pas parfaits – et malheureusement les pays qui les ont ratifié ne respectent pas tous leurs objectifs – ils n’en ont pas moins permis la création de processus institutionnels visant à encourager les pays à respecter leurs promesses et à convaincre les citoyens de mettre les gouvernements devant leurs responsabilités.

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