Raúl Castro tend la main

BRASILIA – Raúl Castro a entamé un processus en vue de faire évoluer l’économie et les relations internationales cubaines. Au niveau national, il espère légitimer son gouvernement en améliorant les conditions de vie. Au niveau international, il refuse d’être captif de l’un des partisans internationaux de Cuba : le président vénézuélien Hugo Chávez.

Castro est en faveur du renforcement de mesures incitatives pour les agriculteurs. Il a autorisé la vente de machines et d’outils agricoles directement aux agriculteurs – alors qu’elle était jusqu'ici centralisée –, et cédé des terres inexploitées à des coopératives privées et à d'autres organismes qui en ont fait la demande. En outre, il a effacé la dette de petits producteurs et augmenter le prix payé par l'État pour le lait et la viande. Pour améliorer la vie des citoyens cubains, il a supprimé les restrictions qui pèsent sur l'acquisition d'ordinateurs, de fours à micro-ondes et autres appareils ménagers.

Les représentants du gouvernement insistent sur le fait que ces changements ont pour but d'améliorer l’efficacité économique, « non de transformer le modèle socialiste ». Or, tout comme la Chine et le Vietnam, le gouvernement devra se rallier plus ouvertement au marché s'il veut réellement améliorer les conditions de vie. Ce n'est qu'avec les investissements étrangers et la libéralisation économique – processus déjà amorcé dans une certaine mesure – que Cuba peut espérer proposer à ses 11,2 millions d'habitants davantage de biens de consommation et de confort, améliorer le système de protection sociale et réhabiliter l'infrastructure du pays.

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