La révolution internet de la Chine

PEKIN – Partout dans le monde, l’histoire s’est reproduite. L’adoption d’internet atteint une masse critique, modifie la manière de mener les affaires et crée des marchés de dizaines de milliards de dollars pour les biens et les services numériques – entrainant ainsi une « destruction créative » massive. C’est désormais au tour de la Chine d’en faire l’expérience – mais dans le cas de la Chine, elle s’opère dans un contexte de profondes transformations économiques et d’évolution rapide de la société. Si ces forces devaient entrer en collision, cela pourrait fondamentalement transformer la deuxième économie mondiale.

Avec 632 millions d’utilisateurs, l’internet chinois a déjà produit un secteur technologique puissant, de dynamiques réseaux sociaux, et le plus grand marché mondial d’e-tail. La frénésie des investisseurs globaux autour de l’introduction en bourse du plus gros commerçant en ligne chinois, Alibaba, donne une idée de l’échelle de valeur économique déjà créée.

Mais l’action s’est jusqu’à présent principalement déroulée dans le camp du consommateur. Les secteurs essentiels, de la manufacture à la santé, n’ont pas progressé au-delà des premières phases de l’Internet. En effet, dès 2012, environ un quart des petites et moyennes entreprises ont commencé à utiliser l’internet pour leurs approvisionnements, la vente, et le marketing – ce qui veut dire que le gros reste à venir.

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