Baustelle Libanon

Die aktuelle Krise im Libanon ist eine Krise des libanesischen Staates. Diese Strukturkrise muss gelöst werden, wenn die Gewalt aufhören soll.

Als Israel seine Truppen 2000 aus dem Südlibanon zurückzog, war die internationale Übereinkunft, dass die libanesische Regierung ihre Autorität in dem geräumten Gebiet wieder behaupten würde. Die Hisbollah, die den bewaffneten Kampf gegen die israelische Okkupation anführte, sollte die Waffen niederlegen, sich selbst als politische Kraft neu erfinden und die schiitische Gemeinde vertreten, die historisch von den herrschenden maronitischen, sunnitischen und drusischen Eliten an den Rand gedrängt worden war.

Nichts davon ist geschehen. Anstatt ihre Streitkräfte in den Südlibanon einziehen zu lassen, duldete die schwache Regierung in Beirut die Entschlossenheit der Hisbollah, die Region in ein Aufmarschgebiet für Angriffe gegen Israel zu verwandeln. Im Laufe der letzten sechs Jahre hat die Hisbollah einen regelrechten Staat im Staate gebildet: Ihre Milizen wurden zur einzigen militärischen Macht im Südlibanon und richteten Außenposten entlang der Grenze zu Israel ein, manchmal nur wenige Meter vom Grenzstreifen entfernt. Gelegentlich beschoss die Hisbollah Israel mit Granaten, und ihr Anführer Hassan Nasrallah setzte seine haarsträubenden Beschimpfungen fort, nicht nur gegen Israel und den Zionismus, sondern gegen alle Juden.

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