Les ambitions néo-impériales de Putin

Tandis que se profile à l'horizon la réélection de Vladimir Putin (le 14 mars prochain), le temps est venu de faire le point sur sa présidence. Sa plus grande réussite est incontestablement la stabilité de la Russie, une stabilité qui a permis de révéler la Russie du 21e siècle.

La plupart des pays du monde entier considèrent la Russie de Putin comme un régime néo-autoritaire fondé sur un capitalisme d'Etat conjugué à une bureaucratie dirigeante et encadré par une société civile immature. En termes de pouvoir brut, la Russie est manifestement inférieure à l'ex Union Soviétique. Cette Russie n'est pas en mesure de s'intégrer pleinement à l'Occident, et elle ne le veut d'ailleurs pas.

Mais la Russie de Putin, bien qu'indubitablement affaiblie, se considère toujours comme une grande puissance. L'élite dirigeante rejette la métamorphose de la Russie en un partenaire subalterne des Etats-Unis ou en un membre insignifiant de l'Occident. A ses yeux, la Realpolitik du 21e siècle est un amalgame de géopolitique et de géoéconomie, mâtinées de puissance militaire. L'idéologie et les valeurs ne jouent qu'un rôle minime.

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