Russia Victory Day Parade Geovien So/ZumaPress

Totalitarismo 2.0

MOSCÚ – En un tratado de 1970 titulado Salida, voz y lealtad, Albert Hirschman analizó las tres opciones que tienen las personas insatisfechas con organizaciones, empresas y Estados: irse, demandar cambios o ceder. En los 45 años desde que se publicó el libro, el marco planteado por Hirschman demostró su utilidad en una muy amplia variedad de contextos. También puede ser muy útil para comprender la política rusa actual.

En 2011 y 2012, muchos ciudadanos rusos, bien educados y relativamente pudientes, se volcaron a las calles para exigir democracia real, con la esperanza de usar su “voz” para cambiar el sistema desde dentro. Pero Vladímir Putin, receptor de un contundente mandato electoral que lo llevó por tercera vez a la presidencia, no los escuchó, sino que intensificó la represión.

Cuando el año pasado Putin invadió y anexó Crimea, a los disidentes (manifiestos o latentes) les quedaron dos opciones: la “salida” (emigrar o retirarse a la vida privada) o la expresión de “lealtad” (mediante muestras activas o pasivas de aceptación). Puesto que los índices de aprobación de Putin superan rutinariamente el 80%, parece que la mayoría de los rusos eligió la segunda opción.

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