Russia Victory Day Parade Geovien So/ZumaPress

极权主义2.0

莫斯科——在1970年的著述退出、呼吁和忠诚中,赫希曼认为民众表达对机构、企业和国家的不满大致有三种选择:他们可以离开、要求改革或者做出让步。这部著作出版45年来,赫希曼的框架已经在无数情况下得到了有效的应用。同样,用它来了解当前俄罗斯政坛能让我们得到启示。

2011- 2012年,俄罗斯许多受过良好教育和相对富裕的民众走上街头呼唤真正的民主,希望自己的“呼声”能从内部改变制度。但以压倒性选民授权重返第三届总统任期的普京却对此充耳不闻;相反,他还进加紧镇压民主。

因此,去年普京侵略并吞并克里米亚后,公开或潜在的持不同政见者只剩下“退出”(通过移民或只关注私人生活)或宣誓“效忠”(通过主动顺从或被动默许)这两种选择。鉴于普京的支持率通常超过80%,大多数俄罗斯人似乎选择了后者。

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