Johannes Eisele/AFP/Getty Images

Führungspersönlichkeiten in einer globalisierten Welt

PRINCETON – In der heutigen globalen Kultur, wo der enormen Komplexität durch einfache Modelle ein Sinn gegeben wird, verkörpern die deutsche Kanzlerin Angela Merkel und der russische Präsident Wladimir Putin gegensätzliche Archetypen nationaler Führung. Wie bereits andere vor ihnen, haben solche Persönlichkeiten oft einen Gegenpol – ein Yang für ein Yin –, der eine vereinfachte Wahlmöglichkeit zwischen zwei alternativen Weltsichten bietet.

Dies traf sicherlich auch auf frühere Perioden politischer und wirtschaftlicher Spannungen zu. Beispielsweise schauten während der Auflösung der demokratischen politischen Systeme nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg große Teile der Welt zur Bestimmung ihrer Zukunft entweder auf Benito Mussolini in Italien oder Wladimir Lenin in Russland.

In den 1920ern überzeugte Mussolini viele ausländische Beobachter davon, er habe die optimale Methode gefunden, die Gesellschaft zu organisieren – eine Methode zur Überwindung der Anarchie und Selbstzerstörung, die im traditionellen Liberalismus inhärent waren. Unter Mussolini war Italien immer noch in die Weltwirtschaft integriert, und der offizielle Korporatismus mit seiner Betonung der vermeintlichen Harmonie der Interessen zwischen Kapital und Arbeit schien eine Zukunft ohne Klassenkonflikte und überspannte politische Kämpfe zu ermöglichen.

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